МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО
«САРАТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИМЕНИ Н.И. ВАВИЛОВА»
САРАТОВ2012 УДК 712:630 ББК 42.37 Актуальные проблемы садово-паркового искусства: Материалы Меж дународной научно-практической конференции. / Под ред. О.Б. Соколь ской. – Саратов: Издательство КУБиК, 2012. – 110 с.
УДК 712:630 ББК 42. Материалы изданы в авторской редакции ФГБОУ ВПО «Саратовский ГАУ», ISBN УДК 712.4 (630.272) Emanuel J. Carter1, Maria E. Ignatieva Associate Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse Professor, Unit of Landscape Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
GREEN INTERVENTIONS: TOWARD AGRICUITURE,
HORTICULTURE AND FORESTY
IN THE RE-INVIGORATION
OF AMERICAN URBAN NEIGHBORHOODSAbstract:
In 1936 the United States government began the process of disinte grating American cities by selectively determining where real estate mortgages would and would not be insured by the Federal Govern ment. Because Federal policies favored investment at the urban fringe and in newly established suburbs, the result has been over sixty years of disinvestment in the America’s neighborhoods and central business districts followed and the growing conventional wisdom that cities are inherently unsound. The landscapes left behind have been character ized by dilapidation, abandonment, poverty, and growing amounts of vacant urban space. Local, state and federal governments have tried many infill strategies to re-knit the fabric of distressed cities, some have been successful, but most have not. In cities where the sense of vacancy seems intractable, there are attempts to consider less tradi tional approaches including the use of agriculture, horticulture and forestry to re-design, re-structure and re-value urban land in ways the are economically, socially, environmentally and aesthetically sound and uplifting. This is a challenge to the community planning and de sign process to create a new model of what the “good” urban precinct might be. This challenge is taken up in the Syracuse Vacant Land Study in 2001.
Vacant land study, urban agriculture, horticulture and forestry.
Initiation of the Syracuse Vacant Land Study The Faculty of Landscape Architecture at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry initiated the Syracuse Vacant Land Study in the summer of 2001at the request of Peoples’ Equal Action and Community Efforts (PEACE, Inc.), a multi-faceted social services organization that serves the City of Syracuse and Onondaga County, New York.
The request by PEACE, Inc. called for a study team to do an inde pendent project. It was understood that the project would be about both urban design and applied ecology. Professor Emanuel Carter and Dr. Maria Ignatieva volunteered to be project leaders for the Syracuse Vacant Land Study. Four graduate students (Jan Brath, Juan Carlos Beltran, Juan Vilela and Patrick Kelly) were hired for this project.
The project had four phases. The first phase addressed research into models, precedents and typologies for using productive natural sys tems to recapture the value of urban vacant land around the world.
The second phase examined four design study areas in order to deter mine the spatial feasibility of agricultural, horticultural and forestry interventions in the cityscape. The third phase addressed a second set of design study areas. The fourth phase analyzed the design studies and draw conclusions in terms of spatial feasibility;
economic and fi nancial feasibility;
political and administrative implications and aesthetic implications.
The Syracuse Context Like many cities in the United States, Syracuse has experienced since 1950 a precipitous loss of population and tax base and has seen the decline of civil, social infrastructure and the decline in collective self-confidence. Suburbanization process can be seen as a major fac tor of this situation.
Federal policy to make the United States a suburban nation began in 1934 when President Franklin Roosevelt formed the Federal Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC). It was Roosevelt’s intention to stimulate recovery from a Depression-ravaged economy, in part, by stimulating growth in housing construction, by changing the nation from one of renters into one of home owners and by changing the way the mortgages system worked. Until the 1930s, if someone wanted a mortgage in the United States, the banks required a 50% initial pay ment and the remainder was amortized over a five-year period. Roo sevelt wanted to make it so that someone purchasing a property could make a very small initial payment and amortize the mortgage over a 20 or 30 years period. What made this idea attractive to banks was that the Federal Government promised to back the mortgage loans. This meant that in the case of a default on a mortgage loan, the Federal Government would pay the bank the amount lent even as the bank re possessed the property. This should have been a formula for the re structuring and strengthening of the American city but it was not.
Realizing that it could not afford to back every property mortgage in the country, the Federal Government devised a plan that allow its initiative to move ahead but would guarantee the destruction of the American city. Using the Federal Home Owners Loan Corporation, the Federal Government sent property appraisal teams to every city in the United States where they worked with local realtors, bankers and lawyers to determine where mortgages should get Federal insurance and where they should not. This process, completed in 1936/37, pro vided a major opportunity for bloodless social engineering and the Federal Government and the economic and social elite of every city made the most of it by making a color-coded map of every city in the United States. Each map had four colors: green, blue, yellow and red.
Every area colored green was eligible for 100% Federal insurance for a mortgage loan. Every area colored blue was eligible for 85% Federal insurance for a mortgage loan. Areas receiving the color yellow could only expect 15% Federal insurance and areas colored red would be in eligible for any Federal insurance of mortgage loans (Bissinger, 1997). More than fifty percent of the land in America’s older cities were written off with the colors yellow and red. It is hard to point to any other time in history when the “haves” (the privileged) surren dered so much territory to the “have-nots” (the unprivileged) without it being caused by a military action.
More interesting than the incredible divide between green and blue areas on the one hand and yellow and red on the other were the criteria how the colors were assigned. There were two primary criteria. The first had to do with property conditions. Any neighborhood or district that showed advanced or advancing dilapidation would receive the colors yellow or red. The second criterion had to do with race and eth nicity. Any neighborhood that had, or was receiving, significant num bers of people who were black, Jewish or foreign-born white was giv en the color yellow or red. Areas that received the colors green and blue were those which were already in good physical condition and were populated by Anglo-German Americans. These areas were usu ally the farthest from the central business district and from industrial zones. In addition, the Federal Government gave green and blue col ors to communities outside the city limits, not only to areas of existing settlement but to agricultural areas where settlement was to be in duced. Finally it had become conventional wisdom among Americans that cities are inherently unsound, suburban subdivisions are inherent ly good and that social and economic segregation, long commutes to work, increased dependence on fossil fuels and increased emissions contributing to global warming are acceptable.
The City of Syracuse reflects this history all too well. In 1950 the city had population of about 220,000.in 2000, the city had a popula tion of about 147,000. The percentage of poor was much higher in 2000. The city’s neighborhoods reflect the abandonment, the anger and the violence. In many of Syracuse’s neighborhoods there are large numbers of abandoned houses and large numbers of vacant spaces.
The City is currently planning to demolish about 1,000 more dwelling units in the next couple of years. The city has also been a victim of poor transportation planning. Major Interstate highways crisscross through the cityscape cutting off neighborhoods and districts and de valuing nearby properties.
Local government has worked hard, but without much creative thinking, to reverse the city’s decline. Without Federal support for true economic and social reintegration, the City of Syracuse has opted for trendy, opportunistic, short-term economic development schemes that are usually insufficient as economic catalysts and worse in terms of urban design. In addition, local government does not have a sense of how to reverse the growing gap-tooth look of neighborhood land scapes caused by the increasing amount of vacant land. Simply build ing new houses makes no sense because there is no population growth to support a return to the neighborhood densities of the early twentieth century. Another approach that the City uses is the subdividing of va cant spaces and offering neighbors on either side half of the property if they will agree to enhance it or at least not let it become or continue to be an eyesore. This has not worked well because many neighbors of vacant land fear that if they take over a piece of property from the City, they will eventually find themselves being assessed higher taxes.
In 2001 the City of Syracuse was in the first stages of preparing a comprehensive plan. Among other things, the plan included elements that address neighborhood revitalization and open space systems. The Syracuse Vacant Land Study gave to the comprehensive plan team and to local government officials so that the conclusions might stimu late innovative ways of thinking about the good neighborhood.
Background Research Several case studies of vacant lands in different countries were ex amined. The essential documents related to American context were “The Philadelphia Vacant Land Study”(1995) and “Farming Inside Cities”(2000). Broad range of examples concerning different aspect of vacant lands from Europe (Great Britain, Germany, Spain, the Nether lands and Russia), Canada, China and New Zealand were took into consideration (Vacant Land In Europe,1998;
Spirn 1998). Many of the case studies were pursuant to Agenda 21, which, unfortunately, is not a force in planning and design in the United States.
Some Assumptions The study team’s research led to certain assumptions:
• The insertion of agriculture, horticulture and forestry coopera tives (green interventions) in inner-city neighborhoods will be spatial ly, socially and legally possible;
• The relative absence of brownfield conditions will allow green interventions to proceed quickly;
• Cooperatives of and for the people of the neighborhoods will create viable social networks based on year-round work and constant the engagement of neighbors in a positive activity;
• Small-scale community agriculture and horticulture can be prof itable for the cooperatives;
• Community cooperatives can find local clients including the city school district, religious institutions that have food pantries for the poor and the homeless and for corner stores in inner-city neighbor hoods where fresh produce is nearly impossible to find;
• The act of collectively and cooperatively producing a real prod uct based on real work will raise the collective self-esteem of those living in inner-city neighborhoods;
• Urban working landscapes can provide a critical mass of activi ty, color, form and pattern to overcome a neighborhood’s gap-tooth look caused by the loss of housing units – up to a point;
• The new aesthetic qualities and the new social network caused by green interventions could rival the suburbs in making inner-city neighborhoods attractive places to live – especially for those who al ready live there and, more important, for those who live there but can afford to move out;
• Green interventions should be allowed to permanently use up to 25% of a neighborhood and that the cooperative should be considered as permanent institutions and permanent (but not inflexible) space;
• Green interventions (especially organic) would contribute to ur ban environmental quality in terms of soil nourishment, microclimate control and reduction of greenhouse gasses;
• Green interventions would contribute to ecologically friendly envi ronment in terms of being “green stepping stones” in urban matrix;
• Green interventions could redefine the nature of the American urban neighborhood.
Project Study Methods Universal design process was used in this study (research of the study area and its context;
research into precedents, models or typolo gies;
site and area analysis;
the establishment of goals, objectives and criteria;
preliminary and final design).
The design method was augmented by the analytical methods of botany and ecology. The area and site analyses were informed in part by plant community analysis and plant indicators identification. This helped the study team to understand the relative health of the soils and the advisability of considering produce gardens in the study areas.
The Design Studies There were four design studies addressing four types of neighbor hood scenarios in order to discover the spatial feasibility of using ag riculture, horticulture and forestry to re-design, re-structure and re value inner-city neighborhoods. In this article we discussed two sites.
Sixty-block area on the city’s Near Westside and (near) Southwest Community – neighborhoods colored yellow and red HOLC’s 1936/37 maps. These districts are adjacent to one another and have been subject to the same urban stresses and have suffered similar damage in terms of abandonment, disinvestment, and the accrual of significant vacant space. The Near Westside is about 57 % African American, 29 % White and 14 % Hispanic. Due to migration from Puerto Rico, the Hispanics are the fastest growing group in the neigh borhood. Agents of stability and improvement include the Spanish Ac tion League, the Huntingdon Family Center, Vincent House, the Shonnard Street Boys and Girls Club and the Native American Ser vice Agency. The (near) Southwest Community is 70 % African American, 25 % White and 5 % Native American and Asian Ameri can. The major agents of stability and improvement are Jubilee Homes, Inc. and the Southwest Community Center.
The Near Westside neighborhood ranks third in the City of Syra cuse in terms of the number of vacant residential lots. 71 % percent of the neighborhood is residential. 43 % of the housing is two-family structures. 38 % are single-family structures. The average assesses value of single-family residences is $33,450, the lowest in the city.
The Southwest Community has suffered 35 % decline in population over the last 30 years. The neighborhood is 54 % residential and con tains mostly single-family and two-family houses. 17 % of the neigh borhood is vacant lots.
The initial sixty-block study area did not include the entirety of ei ther neighborhood but, rather, a large piece of each. The study team decided that sixty blocks was too big and that four study areas (two from each neighborhood) of about five or six blocks each would allow the team to work at a detailed level.
The first study area (Figure 1), referred to as the Near Westside Cooperative. Most challenging about this study area is the fact that there are many vacant parcels but few large ones. In fact this area had the greatest amount of residential coverage of the four study areas.
The unusually long blocks reflected many desire paths connecting the parallel streets running the length of each block.
The suggestions for the Near Westside Cooperative includes five mid-block pedestrian connections, four orchard areas, one herb gar den, one flower garden, an area for public garden plots and a proposal to rehabilitate an existing building as a food processing plant and as greenhouse space for the cooperative. Part of the rehabilitated building could also serve as office space, storage space and meeting space for the proposed neighborhood cooperative. In addition, the design calls for sidewalk improvements, the planting of additional street trees and pedestrian-scale lighting for the mid-block pedestrian connections.
The second study area (Figure 2), referred to as the Rescue Mission Campus, also located in the Near Westside neighborhood. The Rescue Mission is a not-for-profit agency that provides temporary shelter for the homeless, long-term housing, rehabilitation programs for those addicted to drugs and alcohol and education opportunities for those needing to enter or the re-position themselves in the job market. The Rescue Mission owns three large open spaces, one of which is devoted to parking and is absolutely underutilized for that purpose. The design strategy here calls for athletic facilities in the northwest corner of the site and two large areas for orchards, gardens and greenhouses in both the southwest and southeast corners of the site. The design sugges tions included a new dormitory wing attached to the main building just east of the church, a new free-standing dormitory building north east of that new wing and the rehabilitation of an existing house and an existing apartment building for dormitories just south of the new wing. The extensive year-round agricultural and horticultural facili ties would be part of the Rescue Mission’s therapeutic programming.
The campus idea referred to a medieval monastery. It could grow a significant portion of the food needed in the cafeteria such as apples, tomatoes, herbs, etc. Excess food could be stored or sold for profit.
The site is also designed to give those at the Rescue Mission, and those in the surrounding community, easy access to Onondaga Creek which runs through the east end of the site thus adding social and aes thetic benefits to the neighborhood. The pergola leading to the creek and stairs and terraces adjacent to the creek will be a unique aesthetic element in the neighborhood.
Community feedback The design studies were presented to municipal and community leaders as well as to “Canopy” group, an umbrella organization of open space and community garden advocates. Nearly everyone at the presentations liked the potential for Syracuse that they saw in the graphics. Of course, there were questions such as dealing with vandal ism, organization of cooperatives and how long might the municipali ty allow the proposed land uses to exist.
The Next Steps The final step addresses the feasibility of the proposed green inter ventions in terms of physical, social, economic, environmental and aesthetic impacts and in terms of financial, political, administrative and entrepreneurial contexts in both the public and the private sector in Syracuse. All of this will be connected back to concepts, lessons and cautionary tales addressed in the study team’s initial research for precedents, models and typologies.
ReferencesBeatley T. 2000. Green Urbanism, Island Press: Washington.
Bissinger B. 1997. A Prayer for the City, Random House: New York and To ronto.
Donahue B. 1999. Reclaiming the Commons – Community Farms and For ests in a New England Town, Yale University Press: New Haven and London.
Hough, M. 1995. Cities and Natural Process, Yale University Press: New Haven and London.
Kaufman, J., Bailkey, M. 2000.Farming Inside Cities: Entrepreneurial Ur ban Agriculture in the United States.Working paper, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Philadelphia City Planning Commission.1995. Vacant Land in Philadelphia, Professional Report, Philadelphia.
Ruano, M., Ecourbanism, Editorial Gustavo Gili, SA: Barcelona and Nau calpan, 1999.
Spirn, A. 1998. The Language of Landscape, Yale University Press: New Haven and London, Weltman J. 1993.Ashram Acres. Urban Nature Magazine.
Vol 1. No 4: 144-147.
Wood, B. 1998. Vacant Land in Europe, Working Paper, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge.
УДК Dace Andersone Landscape designer, master, Bergen, Norway
CREATIVE «LIVE WALLS» IN GARDENING OF THE CITY
OF SKIEN OF NORWAYNorway is a northern country;
it is fjords, mountains, the seas and long winter. Due to such circumstances at us green roofs and vertical gardening are popular in park art.
Very interesting example of such type of the modern art is present ed in Skien city. There one of buildings is issued by women bags with plants on construction designs. This landscape composition was creat ed in 2010 by MMW Architects studio in cooperation with the Gaia Arkitekte company.
For its construction bamboo stalks from which designers built a lat tice for plants, and also big hanging-down bags of black color and plastic garters for fixture of details of designs were used. Long time the plants landed in bags, grew, rising up on a bamboo lattice and gradually forming a dense and beautiful live wall. Among plants there were also some edible copies so the small vertical garden became even more useful.
The project of an unusual green wall was on the occasion of carry ing out on a backyard of a pub of Lundetangen of Skien of the August MerSmak festival devoted to healthy and tasty food traditional for res idents. From here, a particular interest to the edible plants which have been widely involved in the project.
Only lattices were constructed, the team of ozelenitel began to land in black bags Parthenocssus tricuspidta, Hmulus, various herbs and Fragria.
Further «the filled» bags in a considerable quantity were hanged out on these lattices. To bamboo sticks they fastened by means of plastic strips.
Parameters of a bamboo lattice: 12 x 6 x 0,3 m have simply put It to the white wall existing here and earlier.
Character of the landscape composition which has turned out at our designers can be characterized as semi permanent. It means that at de sire the green wall can function long enough, however if there is no such desire, it can be dismantled easily.
It should be noted that the bamboo choice as main construction ma terial isn't absolutely typical for our districts. Though around the world the bamboo is considered a universal material and is highly ap preciated for hardness and resistance to decay, in this northern country it apply rather seldom. But it is more interesting to those, as authors of the project emphasized, was to beat it in a context of an urbanity Nor wegian landscape. Besides the bamboo after dismantling of a live wall can be used repeatedly for any new installations.
By the way, in the city of Skien one was created not, and two walls from a bamboo and bags with plants. The first wall so was pleasant to citizens that was decided to construct in operating time of a festival one more same wall, only the smaller sizes. In it exclusively food cul tures on the basis of which Lundetangen in a pub prepared various dishes landed already.
The live wall designed by the MMW Architects Company doesn't demand special labor and monetary expenses. It occupies places a lit tle and on weight is quite easy.
The design can be collected and assorted, transferred without prob lems to other places. This model of a small vertical garden is ideally suited for cultivation of useful plants – vegetables, spicy herbs and some fruit. Thus, it has enough advantages to apply it not only in landscape art of Norway, but also to gardening of an urban environ ment of other countries.
УДК 712. Ilza Kalns Landscape architect, Cesis, Latvia
ZAMKOVY PARK IN CESIS AS OBJECT OF LANDSCAPE
GARDENING ART OF CITY SPACECesis is in Vidzema, in 90 kilometers from Riga. The population makes it about 20 thousand people. Cesis is included into national park "Gauya". Long time the city was called as Venden – from the name of the local people. The settlement on this place arose at the end of the I millennium of our era. It is known that on a hill of Riyekstukalns (The nut mountain, the height of 18 m) no later than the IX century built the wooden lock latgaly. Later, in the XI century here lodged vendy. The place of their site of ancient settlement is defined with sufficient accuracy, it was in the area of the present station of the city and occupied the space approximately in 500 square meters.
In 1207 crusaders began to erect in these parts Venden's stone lock.
In the Vendensky lock long time the residence of masters of the Livonsky award took place. Today, the Vendensky lock, undoubtedly, the brightest ruins of the Middle Ages in Latvia. It is a dominant of May park in Cesis city. The lock extended and became stronger since 1237–1561 and served as the residence of masters of the Livonsky award. In 1703 during Northern war the lock was destroyed by armies of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Since the end of the XVI century, the lock adapted to needs of the Tsesissky estate. In 1777 the Tsesissky palace estate was got by count Zivers and the new house constructed on a place of east case of the lock of an award. In this new lock since the Tsesissky Historical museum took place. The yard of the new lock is framed by a barn and a stable coach maker in which the Exhibition house of a museum is nowadays arranged. In a hollow behind a barn of the new lock the brewery took place constructed in 1878 the count Ziversom. To the mentioned constructions the Tsesissky Palace Park based in 1812 adjoins. As in the XIX century in architecture of parks ruins therefore ruins are included in composition it the stone lock to Venda were widely used. Romantic style of park of that far time walk ing paths, leading help to recreate that up, down, reflections in water of a pond of ruins of the lock of an award and trees.
In the lower part of a park ladder eight sculptures, representing children are located (Fig. 1). On the bank of a pond figures of the fish ermen pulling networks, and in its center – a decorative sculpture fountain in the form of the young man holding big fish are visible (Fig. 2). The ladder which is going down to a pond comes to an end with small sculptures fountains in the form of huge lobsters (Fig. 3).
The pond is scenery for open theater with benches. Water in a pond of Tarkhun color is successfully combined with surrounding space and wood and shrubby registration. Forming breed in the park massif is Tlia cordta (60 %). In park Picea abies (5 %), Lrix (3 %), Betula pendula (7 %), cer platanodes (10 %), Slix (2 %), Syringa vulgaris (4 %) and others grow (Fig. 4).
Now the park has huge popularity. There are concerts, performanc es, festivals. And, undoubtedly, legends and a reality intertwine in a new embodiment of objects of city space.
UDK 630* V.V. Kruglyak Voronezh State Academy of Forestry and Technologies, Voronezh city
ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS OF PLANTING OF GREENERY
IN TERRITORY OF CCERThe Central Chernozem Economic Region (CCER) occupies the space 192, 4 thousand km2. The population makes 8,79 millions of people. In this territory there are 35 historical cities, 207 ancient manors, 33 cloisters. In the historical and cultural heritage of CCER the architecturally-park ensembles of ancient manors of the nobility created in XVIII - XIX centuries are occupied the foreground. Many of which were lost for various reasons .
The palace and park ensemble "Novotomnikovo" of the count I.I.
Vorontsov-Dashkov, in Morshansky district of Tambov region, is among the most outstanding manor ensembles of Russia of the second half of XIX century. The author of the park project was Edward Lyudvigovich Regel (1805-1892) – the director of the Saint Petersburg Botanical garden. The park of Novotomnikovo was de signed by E. L. Regel according to the rules of the landscape garden ing art of that time and stylistically corresponding to the architectural ensemble. The park is a nature memorial of the federal value .
On February, 9th, 1951 the government of the Voronezh region has passed the forests control of 6039 hectares of the city lands for crea tion of green plantations round Voronezh. The detailed inspection of sands and ravines was on the area in 7247 hectares according to re quirements of instructions and according to existing techniques .
On the surveyed area the following agricultural and forest and land reclamation actions are planned by the project:
1. Solid afforestation of sands and chernozem-like clay sands.
2. Planting of protective forest zones in orchards.
3. Strengthening of existing ravines by the solid afforestation of them and planting of ravine zones.
Solid afforestation of sands and chernozem-like clay sands is pro vided according to 4 accepted schemes of wood and shrubby breeds mixture.
Scheme № 1. Creation of pure cultures of a pine.
Scheme № 2. Planting of an oak, hardwood and shrubs.
Scheme № 3. Planting of a pine and hardwood.
Scheme № 6. Creation of pure birch plantations.
Carrying out of the data of agricultural and forest and land reclamation, forest cultural and planting of greenery actions promoted to the creation of sanitary-and-hygienic conditions in this territory of the city lands. The system of planting of greenery of Voronezh has the multifunctional significance [1, 4].
On the basis of the carried out researches the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Studying of floristic and dendrology variety of CCER was car ried out by outstanding scientists of the present with coordination of researches by scientific collectives of institutes of higher education, universities, reserves and other research institutions, the works of which are coordinated by a botanical community, Main botanical gar den and Botanical institute of the academy of sciences of the Russian Federation.
2. The park complex of Voronezh was worked out in accordance with modern town-planning principles of a comfortable city environ ment creation formed in the city territory and its greenbelt of the uni form system of planting of greenery, promoting to improvement of their functionally – planning, sanitary-and-hygienic, recreationally sanitary and architecturally – artistic qualities. Such system creates the united structurally – planning organization of green plantations.
3. In arrangement of country estates of CCER the big variety of planning compositions (panoramic (frontal), compact, mixed) was used which were constructed on the developed functional basis ex panded with new zones and elements. At designing of park complexes the mixed compositions were applied.
1. Kruglyak V.V. Stability of plantings in the conditions of anthropogenous influence / V.V. Kruglyak;
Voronezh State Academy of Forestry and Technolo gies. – Voronezh, 2002. – 150 pp.
2. Kruglyak V.V. The most famous objects of landscape, dendrological, and landscape gardening building of Central – Chernozem regions of Russia. The forest bulletin. Scientifically – informational magazine. № 1. – 2010. – p. 31–36.
3. Kruglyak V.V. Features of a system of planting of greenery and prospect of development of a landscape architecture of Voronezh. [Text] / V.V. Kruglyak // Forest magazine. – 2010. – № 6. – p. 34–39.
4. Kruglyak V.V. Introduction of plants in landscape gardening landscape building of CCER. The VSU bulletin. Series: Geography. Geoecology. 2010. № 2.
– p. 138–139.
5. Kruglyak V.V. Botanical gardens and arboretum parks of CCER of Rus sia. [Text] / V.V. Kruglyak // Scientifically-practical magazine. “The ISAA bul letin”, 2011, publication 44, July, – p. 99–106.
УДК 712. O.B. Sokolskaya, E.A. Kuznetsova, OK Zhiltsova The Saratov state agrarian university of N.I. Vavilov, Saratov, Russia
SPECIFICS OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
OF THE TURN OF THE XIX-XX CENTURIES
IN TERRITORIES OF THE VOLGA REGION
ECONOMIC REGIONIn territories of the modern Volga region economic region of a boundary of the XIX–XX centuries, the modernist style period, cultur al landscapes remain. Their main components are landscape gardening complexes, both old estates, and new which are more similar to rich dachas. During this period when any more there was no cheap country work, then the owner himself should dispose of the possession and solve planirovochny problems.
By the boundary of the XIX–XX centuries the wide experience on various garden technologies is stored, every possible societies of gar dening, fruit growing and truck farming were created, the magazines some of them were issued storm drains, lightning rods, systems of waterings etc. were devoted to technical and engineering questions, such as plumbing and sanitary on a country site. Regular exhibitions were constantly arranged. Invited gardeners from Europe, generally from Germany. As in the Volga region was mass of manors of natives of this country or Baltic (for example, the column to Nesselroda, the column Medem, the nobleman Minkh, etc.).
The schools of gardening preparing garden architects were formed.
By this time in the Volga region there was a developed network of nurseries and flower farms. They had various specializations, for ex ample, flower greenhouses Korbutovsky. There it was possible to buy completely sprouts of flowers. So, carpet beds, it was possible to break cheap at will of any size. Green hedges from караганы drvovidny and Cotonester lucdus are popular in the Volga region.
Especially they are characteristic for embankments, boulevards, fencings of "economic" gardens. "Economic" gardens were widely applied both in residences of noblemen, and in a consequence on country sites. The Alpine hills or stone gardens were dominants of compositions of smart beds, wood and shrubby plantings in contain ers, vertical gardening, Kochia scoparia in flower beds, Cannes as ac cents in beds, "economic" gardens, romantic places, the device of tree nurseries, rejuvenescence and a scrap of wood plantings is the all in complete list of that was successfully applied in Volga region objects of gardening in a modernist style. Unfortunately, a number of technol ogies and elements of landscape gardening construction are forgotten.
First of all them treat: carpet and figured beds, "flower" gardens, round beds with fountains in the center, fragrant beds and rabatka, "vertical" and volume flower beds, "color" avenues, emblems in plan ning. Such elements could decorate any modern objects of gardening of settlements of the Volga region economic region. Always a variety of composition methods attractively to visitors therefore it is prefera ble to recreational territories.
Certainly, international relations were very developed. Novelties were delivered on the Russian market very quickly. These are grades of lilacs and peonies, phloxes, krupnotsvetkovy клематисов. For ex ample, wide inclusion in composition of Volga region beds of Kochia scoparia belongs approximately to 1895.
Probably, it is caused by that in the territory of the real Volga re gion economic region lived many Germans where Kochia scoparia was a success in an ornament of flower beds. Gardeners in manorial estates often were people of a German nationality and with German traditions. Therefore so-called «The summer cypress» became a fash ionable plant at a boundary of the XIX–XX centuries.
Striking example of manifestation of a modernist style in park art it is possible to track on an example of farmstead park of the landowner Krivitsky in the Atkarsky region of the Saratov region near Marfino's village. The park is created at a turn of the XIX-XX centuries, alleged ly on methods of German Katzer or the Regel. This magnificent cor ner is located on only 2,5 hectares of the earth. The building of the es tate didn't remain. However at park there are modernist style elements.
First of all, it is an emblem in planning – footpaths clearly draws a monogram of the initials of the owner. In green furniture prevail a set of plants acclimatized in this region. These are larches and the firs giving to landscapes a special orientation. It is interesting that the park in Marfino's village is the most successful experience of an introduc tion of coniferous breeds with use of artificial watering on irrigating ditches water from a pond. Wide recognition used different personal symbols, for example, family trees, the trees planted in honor of the birth of the child, the beds broken in the form of an award, etc. For example, a pine ordinary, planted by the son of count to Nesselroda in park near to Tsarevshchin who was at home in the village in the Sara tov region.
Garden masters of the Volga region of that time worked with con trasts, than today much more carefully. Was considered sufficient to apply contrast, for example, larches and firs (an example, park in Marfino's village of the Saratov region). Inspired masters and open work crowns and bushes. So, popular at this time there is Caragna arborscens. Its gentle leaves and golden clusters of flowers perfectly supplement style features of a modernist style the majority of ancient parks.
Stone gardens or the Alpine hills weren't for Volga region parks panacea, but they met in objects of gardening of that time. So, on a flower bed before an entrance in a palace in Yazykovo's village there was a small Alpine hill.
In spite of the fact that at the time of a modernist style often in parks the sports grounds surrounded with a green hedge from Caragna arborscens were organized, in parks of the Volga region of sports grounds wasn't. However green hedges from a yellow acacia were applied in enclosing of apiaries, "economic" gardens, etc. Flower beds in objects of gardening settlements very often were figured.
Quite often they settled down on artificially created slopes as was in a public garden of of Atkarsk in the Saratov region. There was the graceful wide ladder going up to openwork gate and covered with magnificent flower carpets, to the right of it a hill covered with a magnificent carpet with sitting butterflies, at the left a dark green hill with a creeping giant bug … Vertical flower beds are an important el ement of that time. A known example – a volume flower bed in the form of the Eiffel Tower in an old garden of merchant Sapozhnikov in the city of Volska. It is created by a principle of a framework filled by the earth with flower cultures. Here strange plants of a palm tree and orange trees were exposed on avenues in tubs.
Round beds with fountains – attributes of almost all objects of land scape gardening art of the Volga region region at a boundary of XIX XX of centuries. Round motive not accident. As A.Regel explains:
«… presence of a round bed very simply – it was necessary for an en trance of crews. The crew can't be developed how the car, therefore round or oval beds – favourite motive of Russian architects».
Thus, landscape gardening complexes of "Silver age" are rich with art elements, completely characterize this era. Virtuosity and a stilizatorstvo, a retrospektivnost and sentimentalism of objects of landscape architecture of a modernist style, merged in one romantic spirit – become samples and for «green architecture» today.
УДК 712.4 (470.44) O.B. Sokolskaya, A.A. Vergunova The Saratov state agrarian university of N.I. Vavilov, Saratov, Russia
FEATURES OF HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE LANDSCAPE
GARDENING OBJECTS OF ENGLANDHistorical landscape parks of England of the period of the end of XVIII – the first half of the XIX centuries reflects romantic prefer ences of that time where characteristic planirovochny tendencies of objects of landscape architecture were the landscape directions both in creation of roads and tracks, and in the organization of wood and shrubby groups. Merge of the park territory to the surrounding nature – the main concept of English landscape art of this time.
Analyzing this period, we established the main types of objects of landscape gardening art:
• gardens and parks of lords (28 %);
• the gardens and parks for rest of "people at large" (14 %);
• gardening of the areas (7 %);
• botanical gardens (10 %);
• zoos (4 %);
• privately owned gardens (37 %).
All types of objects of landscape gardening art have: ponds and streams with free outlines, lawns, groves with wood groups, etc. It should be noted that plantings in such territories expanded so that a density of kroner reached 1,0., and accidentally razbroshenny vases under trees and sculptures gave to landscape gardening objects a ma jestic picture. As focus of separate park landscapes anthropogenous elements – rotundas, temples, the pavilions, artificially created ruins, etc., giving to landscapes special mystery and melancholy served. The various specific wood and shrubby structure participated in creation of compositions. So, preference gave to a beech with its soft air-line, to an oak, a hornbeam, an elm and a pine. Late into compositions began to enter экзоты and the different decorative plantings, especially beautifully blossoming catalpa, a magnolia, a chestnut and a number of coniferous breeds – a cedar Lebanese, a fir-tree Serbian, a cypress marsh, etc. Many landscape pictures are created according to H.Repton, i.e. on a background undersized trees were planted, reach ing this reception of visual removal and to connect a site with the na ture and to make impression of freedom, its protection did invisible, hid it or in a ditch, or skillfully disguised greens. All compositions of formal gardens were under construction by a principle of picturesque pictures and created a number of various panoramas. From composi tion methods were allocated such as:
• for gardens and parks of lords – half-open, landscape, politsentrichesky, dissymetric;
• for the gardens and parks of rest of "people at large" – half-open, compact, politsentrichesky receptions, landscape with regular roads;
• for gardening of the areas – open, monotsentrichesky, compact;
• for botanical gardens – half-open, regular and landscape, politsentrichesky, dissymetric;
• for zoos – half-open, regular and landscape, politsentrichesky;
• for privately owned gardens – half-open, regular and landscape, monotsentrichesky.
During this period of development of a parkostroyeniye of England topiarny forms were widely applied. Them used in the form of a short haired fence from a yew, a box, a hornbeam, laurels or other breed which is well giving in to a formovka for landscape gardening compositions by the Decor of a fence served – pyramids, cones, spheres from greens.
At English gardens and parks in the forefront there were regular fragments of planning with sharp transition to a landscape part of park. In regular sites joined – orchestra seats, a rosary, etc., also were found a clear boundary in the form of a stone or granite low wall, or a balustrade issued by vases and even a sculpture.
For the considered period expansion of the range of plants and den drology development as sciences is characteristic. Nurseries were for this purpose organized and dendrology sites were entered into park structure. Already from now on, beauty of kroner of separate trees, applying them in single landings, played in formal gardens a dominat ing role. However the majority of wood and shrubby plantings con centrated near reservoirs and in peripheral regions of objects of a parkostroyeniye. To the middle of the XIX century of a glade were created extensive with single and group green landings. They were cut through by numerous paths.
We revealed characteristics landscape gardening arts of England of the period of the end of XVIII-I of a half of the XIX centuries:
• wide use of a gazonny covering, including in the device of roads;
• the device in the forefront of regular elements in the form of or chestra seats, a pergola or short-haired forms, for underlining of strong-willed participation of the architect in nature change;
• frequent application of topiarny art;
• changes of a relief and distribution of trees for continuously changing look;
• a dominating role of separate trees;
• the complicated outlines in artificial reservoirs;
• prevailing value of privately owned gardens of average estate;
• concentration of green plantings in peripheral sites, the main av enues and at reservoirs;
• park and Wednesday association.
Thus, analyzing English landscape gardening heritage of the end of XVIII–I of a half of the XIX centuries, we established a continuity of application of some principles of creation of composition of objects of landscape gardening art of England of that time with historical land scape and architectural objects of the Volga region economic region.
Them to treat:
• the cut-up coastlines of reservoirs;
• concentration of green plantings at a surface of the water;
• alternation of the opened and closed spaces in the ratio 2:1;
• a dominating role of separate trees in the solution of glades or massifs;
• application of regular planning in the central part of parks of es tates with transition to a landscape part in ratios 1:3 or 1:4;
• merge of the park territory to a landscape and natural environment.
УДК 630* Т.А. Андрушко, А.В. Терешкин Саратовский государственный аграрный университет имени Н.И. Вавилова, г. Саратов, Россия
ОЦЕНКА ДЕКОРАТИВНЫХ СВОЙСТВ КУСТАРНИКОВДекоративные качества – существенный критерий при подборе растений для озеленения.
Шкала для оценки декоративных качеств кустарников 1. Габитус растения -крупная плотная 2. Побеги - Оригинальная (красная, бурая, светло – коричневая, желтовато – бурая) 3. Листья 3.1 Сроки распускания листьев 3.2 Продолжительность облиствления - средняя продолжительность (сентябрь – октябрь) 3.3 Фактура листьев 3.4 Цвет листьев 3.5 Сезонные изменения окраски листьев 3.6 Осенняя окраска листьев преобладают желтые, оранжевые, красные тона 4. Цветение 4.1 Сроки цветения 4.2 Продолжительность цветения 4.3 Величина соцветий 4.4 Контрастность окраски соцветий на фоне листьев 4.5 Аромат 5. Плодоношение 5.1 Сохранность плодов 5.2 Характер расположения плодов 5.3 Характер расположения плодов по кроне 5.4 Размер плодов 5.5 Декоративность плодов 5.6 Контрастность окраски плодов на фоне листьев 6. По типу восприятия пейзажных картин Существуют различные методики определения декоративных качеств деревьев и кустарников: Н.В. Котелова, Н.С. Гречко, 1969 г.;
Х.Г Якубов (2005 г.);
Калмыкова А.Л. (2009 г.) в основу которых положена бальная оценка. На основе последней предла гаем усовершенствованную шкалу для оценки состояния и про явления декоративных качеств кустарников.
На основании данной шкалы для оценки декоративных качеств кустарников выявлены виды, обладающие высокой (38–41 балл) и средней (31–36 баллов) декоративностью.
Декоративность кустарников, произрастающих на склонах оврагов tatarica L.) aureum Pursh.) (Cytisus zingeri (Nenuk.) V. Krecz.) Боярышник однопестичный или од нокосточковый (Crataegus monogyna Наибольшей декоративностью обладают красивоцветущие ви ды: боярышник однопестичный или однокосточковый, жимо лость татарская, смородина золотистая. Представленные кустар ники выделяются:
• оригинальной окраской побегов (красно-бурая, светло коричневая, коричневая);
• продолжительным цветением, ярко выраженной окраской соцветий на фоне листьев и ароматом;
• длительным плодоношением (у боярышника однопестично го плоды сохраняются до следующего сезона) и окраской плодов (ярко–красные у боярышника однопестичного, оранжево-желтые, пурпурно-коричневые, черные у смородины золотистой, оранже вые, красные у жимолости татарской);
• красочной осенней окраской листьев (желтые у жимолости татарской и боярышника однопестичного, красновато-малиновые с желтизной у смородины золотистой).
Ракитник Цингера, спирея средняя, спирея городчатая являют ся средне декоративными. Однако, ракитник Цингера в отдель ные периоды не уступает выше перечисленным кустарникам бла годаря продолжительному цветению (май–июнь), окраски соцве тий и сильному аромату, оригинальной окраски побега, длитель ным плодоношением.
Спиреи (городчатая и средняя) уступают в декоративности по цветению – не продолжительное, хотя и цветут обильно, но цвет ки мелкие, аромат слабый;
плоды (листовка сборная сложная) не несут эстетическую привлекательность, характеризуются ранним листопадом – начало сентября, сезонных изменений в окраске листьев не наблюдается.
В результате проведенной оценки состояния и проявления де коративных качеств кустарников по разработанной шкале были выделены виды, обладающие наибольшей декоративностью в те чении вегетационного периода (боярышник однопестичный или однокосточковый, жимолость татарская, смородина золотистая), обладающие средней декоративностью (ракитник Цингера, спи рея средняя, спирея городчатая). Обследованные виды кустарни ков на склонах г. Саратова составляют основной ассортимент, и наряду с эстетическими качествами обладают санитарно – за щитными свойствами.
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ1. Калмыкова А.Л. Состояние лиан в вертикальном озеленении насе ленных пунктов Поволжья. – Саратов: ИЦ «РАТА», 2009. – 128 с.
2. Котелова Н.В., Гречко Н.С. Оценка декоративности // Цветоводст во. –1969. – № 10. – С. 11–12.
3. Якубов Х.Г. Экологический мониторинг зеленых насаждений Мо сквы. – М: ООО «Стагирит-Н», 2005. – 264.
4. Оценка декоративности зеленых насаждений. Электронный ресурс.
[Режим доступа]: http://www.vlc.ru/ecology/natureuse/green_value.htm.
УДК 630* Л.И. Аткина, С.В. Вишнякова Уральский государственный лесотехнический университет, г. Екатеринбург, Россия
ПЕЙЗАЖНЫЕ САДЫ ЕКАТЕРИНБУРГА XIX ВЕКАНа Среднем Урале практически отсутствуют крупные дворян ские имения, украшающие города центральной России. Их место занимали каменные постройки купцов-промышленников.
Екатеринбург купеческий представлен множеством городских усадеб, которые образуют и сохраняют до нашего времени исто рический центр города. Как правило, усадьба состояла из жилого дома, подсобных помещений и большого приусадебного участка, включающего и сад для прогулок, и утилитарный огород. К со жалению, охрана памятников культуры коснулась лишь построек.
Из садов, в какой-то мере, была сохранена лишь территория при усадьбе Харитонова-Расторгуева.
Цель представленной работы – выявление крупных (от 1 до 10 га) частновладельческих садов г. Екатеринбурга, имеющих черты пейзажного парка. Для изучения приусадебных участков был проведен поиск архивных материалов в Государственном ар хиве Свердловской области (ГАСО). В результате исследований были найдены 11 объектов (в описаниях даны современные на звания улиц г. Екатеринбурга).
Усадьба Нурова М.А. (ул. Чапаева, 1). Нуров М.А. извест ный благотворитель, избиравшийся дважды городской головой (в 60-70-е годы XIX века). По описанию 1889 г., усадьба Нурова со стояла из деревянного оштукатуренного дома, каменного двух этажного флигеля, служб, сада и оранжереи.
Усадьба купцов Давыдовых (ул. Чапаева, 5). Официальной владелицей являлась Анфия Павловна, урожденная Ошуркова, вышедшая замуж за П.Ф. Давыдова, выпускника Петербургской консерватории, оперного тенора и предпринимателя (имел гон чарно-печной и израсцовый заводы). Дом, выведен на красную линию улицы, парадный двор, сад и огород. Связь с садом и го родом осуществлялась через арку между двумя восточными кор пусами.
Усадьба Баландина И.Д. (ул. Чапаева, 7). Первый каменный дом на этом участке сооружен еще в 1791 г. Позднее он был пе рестроен. Существовал парадный двор, хозяйственный двор и обширный сад.
Усадьбы Рязановых (ул. Куйбышева, 40). Каменный одно этажный дом Т. Рязанова упоминается еще 1808 году, когда ку пец выкупил у казны стоявший вблизи ветхий госпиталь. Рязанов снес госпиталь, на его месте разбил сад. В 1813 г. он упоминал:
«Намерен ныне на оном [месте] для умножения в здешнем крае иностранных произрастаний развести сад». В 1835 г. сын Терен тия Аникий, новый владелец дома, заказал архитектору К.Г. Тур скому проект каменной оранжереи в саду . Большой рязанов ский дом был очень богат, его саду присущи мягкие пейзажные черты, свойственные садово-парковому искусству первой поло вины XIX века. Там высажены редкие породы деревьев, а до реки шли широкие дубовые аллеи.
К сожалению, сейчас мало что сохранилось от всего великоле пия. Нет ворот сада вместе с оградкой – их засыпали землей при прокладке трамвайной линии и устройстве моста над рекой. На всегда исчез и некогда прекрасный сад – с бальзамическими то полями, дубами, кленами . Еще один из династии Рязановых – Иван купил в 1860-е годы дом, который ныне называется «малый рязановский». Установлено, что на его территории протекала речка, создавшая пруд.
Очень известное имя среди Рязановых – Яким Меркурьевич, дядя Аникия и брат Терентия. Жил в каменной усадьбе на правом берегу Исети, при впадении в нее р.Камышинки. В этом доме Я.М. Рязанов принимал Александра I. В 60-е годы XX века в пар ке построили новый современный четырехэтажный больничный корпус областного пульмонологического центра. Парк сохранил ся, но планировка и насаждения изменены полностью.
Дача Малахова М.П. (ул. Луначарского, 173а). В 1816 г.
М.П. Малаховым построена дача. Это был загородный дом с на делом. Место было живописное – рядом с речкой, которую сразу нарекли Малаховкой. В 1824 г. усадьба была одной из крупней ших в городе. В состав входили главный дом, двор со службами, парк с живописным прудом, огород, цветник. Пруд, образован ный на речке по диагонали, пересекавшей усадьбу, явился есте ственной границей двух ее частей – двора с хозяйственными по стройками и парка, раскинувшегося к юго-востоку от дома. В той части парка, которая примыкала к главному дому, архитектор со хранил естественный лесной массив, создавший живописный фон для изящного объема дома, облик которого напоминал загород ную итальянскую виллу с бельведером.
Усадьба Филитц Э.Ф. (ул. Мамина-Сибиряка, 187). Боль шой усадебный комплекс включал здание пивоваренного завода, службы, хозяйственные дворы и сад. Архитектором был Ю.О.
Дютель. На месте бывшего «Сада Филитц» находится современ ный зоопарк. Супруги Эрнст Фердинандович и Эмма Федоровна Филитц построили здесь в середине 1880-х годов пивоваренный завод и общественный сад при нем, включающий посадки де ревьев, пруд с лодками, и павильон с буфетом. Во время гастро лей заезжих артистов или концертов екатеринбургских музыкан тов там собиралось немало народу.
Усадьба Расторгуева-Харитонова (ул. Карла Либкнехта, 44).
Земельный участок и недостроенный дом, разбогатевший на про даже вина купец Лев Иванович Расторгуев приобрел у вдовы од ного из сановников, судя по купчей, в декабре 1798 г. Желая расширить свои владения, Расторгуев вскоре обратился в управу с просьбой отвести ему место под устройство усадьбы на север ном склоне Вознесенской горки. В прошении объяснял, что жела ет болотистое и топкое место обустроить, превратив его в сад, который украсил бы город.
При Харитонове на 9 га (в настоящее время – около 5 га) за усадьбой был разбит «английский сад» с парковыми сооруже ниями. Маленькая речка-ручей Пеньковка с родниками преврати лась в чистый живописный водоем, потом в нем насыпали остро вок, поставили беседку. Это был первый общественный сад в Екатеринбурге, он имел строгую планировку в лучших традициях западноевропейской дворцово-парковой архитектуры. Аллеи в саду располагались таким образом, чтобы садовая ротонда замы кала их перспективу.
Усадьба Маклецкова И.З. (ул. Тургенева, 1). Усадьба дирек тора Екатеринбургского отделения Волжско-Камского банка, по четного гражданина города располагалась в квартале улиц Верх нее-Вознесенской (Тургенева), Клубной (Первомайская), Возне сенской (К. Либкнехта), Главного проспекта (Ленина). От усадь бы на сегодняшний день сохранился концертный зал (зал музы кального училища им. П.И.Чайковского) и главный двухэтажный дом усадьбы, надстроенный сегодня еще на два этажа. Сад пол ностью утрачен.
Сад Афиногенова И.К. (ул. Февральской революции, 37).
Сад Афиногенова соседствовал внутри квартала с садом Д.И. Ка занцева. В начале XX века поместье Афиногеновых занимало до вольно большое пространство, большая часть приусадебной зем ли была отведена ими под садовый участок. О саде Афиногенова до нас дошли лишь известие, что сад здесь имелся. Он высаживал на своей усадьбе деревья из соображения престижа, поскольку был достаточно богат.